After reading the notes attached below give a summary about it by answering the question below- What were the 4 main chronological-historical phases of the Second World War? What distinguished each phase and what was the historical significance of each one?3/4 Page long.•

3-way Power Struggle of WWII, 1935-1945
Incl WWII (officially 1939-45), but also the critical prior period, 1935-39.
1.Liberal capitalism vs
2.Fascism/Nazism & Japan militarism
3. vs Soviet Communism.
4 phases over 10 yrs, w shifting alliances & conflicts btwn the 3 systems.
Phase 1, 1935-39: Ger & Jap on the make; Ger violates Versailles; 1936 enters
into Anti-Comintern Pact w Italy & Japan. Ger & Italy attack Spanish Republic;
1937 Japan invades China in 2nd Sino-Jap War (to 1945)
Liberal cap countries appease Hitler – let him do what he wants…
In contrast, in 1935, the USSR calls for an international ‘Popular Front’ vs
Hitler & Fascism/Nazism. Soviets also propose defense treaty w liberal cap
powers vs Hitler, but they reject it.
Nazi Persecutions of Jews + Munich: the Apex of Appeasement
1933-38: ½ of 500K Jews fled Ger after loss of citizenship & persecutions.
March ‘38: Ger annexed Austria…
June ‘38: Munich synagogues smashed.
July: US sponsored Evian Conf on Jewish refugees failed. Anti-Semitism
Aug: Nuremburg synagogues smashed.
Hitler threatened war over Sudetenland.
Sept ’38 Munich Conf: Chamberlain, Daladier (Fr PM), Mussolini, Hitler. Stalin
not invited. Chamberlain agreed to let Hitler take the Sudetenland; promised
“peace in our time”.
Roosevelt distrusted Hitler; he & Cordell Hull (Sec State) esp opposed his trade
Sept ‘39: start of WWII in Europe…
The (‘Official’) Beginning of WWII in Europe
Phase 2: August 1939-June 1941.
Aug. 23: Stalin drops 3-yr effort for anti-Nazi alliance w Br, signs ‘NonAggression’ pact w Hitler.
Soviets prepare for inevitable war w Nazis, who now attack west.
Sept 1, 39, official start of WWII. Nazis invade most of Poland, Soviets take rest
+ Baltic states. Sept 3, Br & Fr declare war on Ger.
‘Phony war’ to Apr 40; little action.
Ap-June, 1940: Denmark, Norway, Belgium, Holland, France all fall to Nazis.
Invasions, occupations, collaboration, resistance.
The Start of WWII in Europe cont.
May 1940: Churchill becomes PM in Br.
Aug-Oct: Battle of Britain. Nazis cannot defeat Britain. German bombing‘Blitz’
follows; Britain remains unbroken.
Oct 1940: Italy invades Greece & is pushed back.
Apr-May 1941 Nazis invade & occupy Yugoslavia & Greece, critically delaying
Nazi invasion of USSR by 2-3 months.
Phase 3 of WWII: The Grand Alliance, June 41-mid-43

June 41: Nazi attack on USSR (Barbarrosa); liberal cap powers (Fr. Br. {soon
U.S} ally w USSR vs Naz/Fasc {soon Japan}.
• General: Nazism decisively falls toward military defeat. Up to mid-43.
• Dec. 41: J attacks Pearl Harbor; US at war.
• 1941-42: J invades colonial SE Asia.
• June 42: US devastates J fleet at Midway.
• 1942-43: Nazi defeats in N. Africa.
• Late 42-Jan 43: USSR defeats German armies at Stalingrad – the turning point of
the war for Allies. The USSR saves liberal capitalist states from Nazism…
• Mid-43: Italian campaign & fall of Mussolini…
• Phase 4 of the International Power Struggle
• Mid-43-mid-45 (end): last phase.
• N/F & J on road to defeat.
• Allied Italian campaign continues.
• June 1944: Normandy campaign.
• Pacific campaigns (mainly US) destroy Japanese Navy.
• Feb 45: Br/US bomb Dresden: 40-140,000 civilians killed.
• May 45: Hitler’s suicide in bunker w Soviet tanks thundering overhead…
• Pre-war antagonism of liberal cap vs USSR re-emerges over E & SE Eur.
• Issue that brought on war not settled…
• Liberal capitalist powers & USSR move toward the‘Cold War’.
Aug 45: US drops atomic bombs on Japan. Japan surrenders. War over.

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