Please answer the all questions and word terms in 2-5 sentences. (File attached)Answer the following question in 2-4 sentences (Only write the point)
and write the meaning of Terms
Plato – The Ring of Gyges
What is the challenge that Glaucon brings to Socrates?
What is it meant to point out about the nature of humans and about the nature of
What are the examples that he uses to illustrate his points and how do they prove
Terms: the Ring of Gyges, psychological egoism, ethical egoism
What does Epicurus say of the study of philosophy? Is it important?
Who, if anybody, should be studying philosophy? Why or why not?
What does Epicurus think is the ultimate good in life?
how is it maximized?
Why or why not?
How is this good achieved and
What are some specific approaches one should take in order to maximize the ultimate
Know how Epicurus views acting selfishly.
selfish manner?
Why would anyone ever stop acting in a
Terms: prudence, hedonism, intrinsic value, instrumental value
Thomas Hobbes
Be able to explain the “State of Nature”.
Why does Hobbes think that people will want to free themselves from the state of
nature? What is the motivating force behind their desire to remove themselves from
the State of Nature?
Know how people will be able to find a way out of the state of nature. What is it that
they must do? Will they?
What is the role of the Leviathan in allowing for people to remove themselves from the
State of Nature?
Terms: state of nature, social contract, Leviathan
Richard Dawkins
What is a survival machine? Know what can be classified as a survival machine. Are
humans survival machines?
Why does Dawkins think the most logical policy for a survival machine is to murder and
cannibalize one’s rivals? What are his arguments as to why they don’t do that?
Is the best strategy for a survival machine to be completely selfish? Why or why not?
On what level does Dawkins think that ESS’s are passed along? How does this
account for a survival machine’s tendency to be selfish or not selfish?
Terms: survival machine, ESS
Ayn Rand
Know why Ayn Rand is opposed to the concept of altruism.
should not be a moral person by not being altruistic?
Is she saying that one
What does Rand think is the problem with morality and values in our society? What
are some of the examples she gives and why? What is the picture that the average
person has in their minds when one promotes acting out of self interest?
Terms: ethical egoism, altruism
Plato – Euthyphro
Be able to discuss the Euthyphro dilemma. In the dialogue how do we get to the point
where Socrates encounters the Euthyphro dilemma? What is the importance of each
of the two prongs of the dilemma? What conclusion can be made by accepting one or
the other prong of the dilemma?
Terms: Euthyphro Dilemma
The Bible – The Ten Commandments & The Sermon on the Mount
What is the importance of the form in which the Ten Commandments are written?
What are the overriding themes to the moral theory presented by Jesus in the Sermon
on the Mount?
Are the moral theories presented in these readings meant to be objective or subjective?
What are the greatest goods and keys to the good life in each of the moral theories
According to the Bible, what should one ask oneself if they want to know what the right
action to do in a certain situation is?
Terms: divine command moral theory
Immanuel Kant
What is the role of the good will in making an action good?
Make sure you know where Kant thinks duties come from. How are the duties that
spring from an individual’s subjective desires differ from the duties of morality which are
thought to be objective?
Know the difference between hypothetical and categorical imperatives. Know the form
of each of these imperatives. What is the significance of each of them being presented
in the form of an imperative? What does that give the person?
According to Kant, what should one ask oneself if they want to know what the right
action to do in a certain situation is?
What is the significance of the Kingdom of Ends? Who is included in the Kingdom of
Ends and why?
Terms: deontological moral theory, good will, categorical imperative, hypothetical
imperative, Kingdom of Ends
John Stuart Mill
What is the significance of the quote, “
Know what determines the right action in any given situation.
What is the highest good in life and how is it possible to maximize that highest good?
According to Mill, what should one ask oneself if they want to know what the right action
to do in a certain situation is?
Terms: consequentialist moral theory, principle of utility
What does Aristotle hold to be the highest of all realizable goods and how does he
come to this conclusion?
Know how excellence and virtue are related to the highest realizable good. How does
one learn to be virtuous? Where does pleasure fit into the relationship between virtue,
excellence and happiness?
What does Aristotle think a moral theory should be built around action or character?
According to Aristotle, what should one ask oneself if they want to know what the right
action to do in a certain situation is?
Terms: virtue ethics
Friedrich Nietzsche
What does Nietzsche think is left out of moral theories (meaning what underlies them)
when they are written as being objective?
How does Nietzsche describe moral theories as they relate to our human natures?
Be able to give some of the characteristics of the good and the bad in master morality
and the good and the evil in slave morality. Which moral theories can be described as
each, master morality and slave morality? Which one does Nietzsche support?
Terms: master morality, slave morality,

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