Please see attachment titled Instructions for detailsWill provide info from book upon choosing a tutorHow to Analyze a Case
An Introduction to the Case Method
For many of you, this will be the first course using cases that you have ever taken. The fact that
this form of learning is new to you will naturally cause you some concern, and early on, some
difficulty. Your textbook has twelve chapters that present aspects of the strategic marketing
planning process, and a large number of “stories” about companies called cases. These cases give
you the chance to look at the present situation facing an organization, and after a systematic
analysis, make recommendations that will produce a change in the results or outcomes. While
you cannot be certain what that outcome will be, through the discussion and critique of your
suggestions by fellow students and your professor, projections can be made about the foundation
for the probable success of your recommendations.
In this course you will have the opportunity, through cases, to see how well you can assess and
address a business issue or problem. The role of the case course is to provide you with the
opportunity to utilize the knowledge you have gained to this point to evaluate and make
recommendations to enhance the performance of real organizations. This is not a substitute for
real world experience in a job with an organization, but it is the type of learning that helps
prepare you to begin using the business knowledge you have acquired.
Because the process of learning through case analysis may be new to you, we will devote much
of this discussion to providing you with a framework to use in analyzing the cases found in your
textbook. Such a framework is useful not only in analyzing cases in textbooks, but also in
considering business situations described in publications such as The Wall Street Journal,
Business Week, Fortune, and Forbes. In reality, most articles about companies in magazines and
newspapers are mini-cases. The cases in your text tell stories, including facts, opinions,
projections, results, expectations, plans, policies, and programs. As readers, we need some way
to structure the information presented in a way that makes it more useable. Analysis frameworks
provide a means to accomplish this end.
There are several benefits in having a framework to use for analyzing situations. The first is that
a framework provides comprehensive coverage of the topics and issues involved. Without a
framework, the analyst may overlook some issues. For example, a person might not consider the
various effects of the economic environment facing the organization at a given point in time.
Recommendations made without this consideration may not be appropriate, and they may even
lead to the failure of the organization. Another benefit of a framework is ease of communication.
When everyone uses a similar framework to analyze cases, the terms each person uses person
have similar meanings. This is a huge advantage in discussing cases in and outside of class. A
final benefit is consistency of analysis. A framework provides a blueprint to approach situations
consistently every time. This is a great aid in getting started and conducting the analysis
effectively and efficiently. Using the framework repeatedly will make you very proficient with it.
In fact, experience shows that students continue to use this framework in their jobs long after
graduation. They continue to get these benefits, and in times of crisis, the framework gives them
something to rely on in dealing with difficult situations.
The framework presented in the remainder of this discussion is certainly not the only one that is
useful in analyzing cases. We also cannot claim that it is the best framework. Your professor may
provide his or her own framework, and if so, you should follow it. In all probability, it will be
some modification of the one outlined here. As long as the framework provides you with the
benefits outlined above, you feel it suits your needs, and you use it consistently, the case analysis
process will be made more manageable and valuable.
The Seven-Step Case Analysis Framework
The seven-step framework presented here is a synthesis of the frameworks used by your book’s
authors in their many years of combined experience in teaching marketing. It has been improved
over the years through discussions with other marketing professors who use case analysis in their
courses. It is straightforward to use, and provides the benefits of comprehensiveness,
communication, and consistency. It will not, however, serve as a substitute for carefully reading
(usually three or more times) and considering the cases. It will provide a solid structure to
organize the diverse information presented in a case.
As you work your way through this framework, or a similar approach to case analysis, we offer
the following hints to increase your probability of success:
1. No one can analyze a case after reading it only one time, or even worse, doing the analysis
during the first reading of the case. You should read through the case once just to get an
understanding of the nature of the case. During the second reading, you can begin to structure
and classify the issues as they appear. A truly comprehensive case analysis will probably
require at least three readings.
2. Don’t get trapped into thinking the “answer” to the case is hidden somewhere in the case text.
There is never a single answer to a case just as there is never a single marketing strategy that
is appropriate for all situations. Each case is unique. Looking for tricks or shortcuts is not
3. Make an effort to put yourself in the shoes of the decision maker in the case. The use of roleplaying as part of the analysis can be very useful. It helps you gain some feeling for the
perspective of the key parties at the time the case took place. After you have done several
analyses, you will likely come up with your own additional procedures or guidelines that
assist you with this process.
Step 1: Situation Analysis
The material presented in a case is much like the communications we have in our daily lives.
Usually our conversations involve the selection of a topic and then the discussion of that topic,
and so it is with cases. The problem is that we end up with bits and pieces of information that by
themselves are not very useful, but once organized, can be quite valuable in our assessment of the
situation. The first step in the framework helps you organize the pieces of information into more
useful topic blocks.
The process of assessing a situation is widely accomplished through the use of SWOT Analysis
(strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats). The issues and procedures involved in SWOT
Analysis are fully explored in Chapter 4 of your text. Our role here is simply to reinforce the
issues covered in SWOT and to emphasize its role in the case analysis framework.
Looking at an organization’s strengths and weaknesses is the first half of Step 1. This involves
looking at the organization’s internal environment. Strengths are those aspects of the internal
environment that can help the firm address a present problem, issue, or opportunity, while
weaknesses are negative factors or deficiencies that do not allow the firm to reach its full
potential. One topic that should be addressed is the content and appropriateness of the current
marketing plan. Is the marketing plan current? Do the key parties understand and utilize it? Was
it developed with input from all levels of the organization? The organization’s financial
condition may also present strengths and weaknesses. Is it in a solid position, and does it have, or
can it acquire, needed funds at a reasonable cost of capital? Other possible strengths and
weaknesses might include managerial expertise, human resources, product reputation and
customer loyalty, patents and trademarks, age and capacity of production facilities, channel
relationships, and promotional programs (sales force, advertising program, publicity, and sales
promotion efforts). These are all issues that we want to consider in terms of both the present state
of the firm and identifiable trends.
Students assessing a case situation see the importance of considering the organization’s internal
environment fairly naturally. The aspect of SWOT analysis that gives students the most difficulty
is the external environment where all opportunities and threats reside. These are issues that exist
outside the boundaries of the firm. All opportunities and threats will exist at their present levels
even if the organization in question does not exist. Technology, competition, the macroeconomic
environment, regulation, and social and cultural trends are all issues that affect the success of an
organization’s strategies, but the organization has only limited influence on them.
Because the power to affect the external environment significantly is usually absent, management
must view the factors and forces present in the external environment as issues to be considered,
but not usually controlled. Managers should take steps to minimize the exposure to threats and to
take full advantage of the opportunities. You might think of opportunities and threats as currents
in a river. It is much easier to find a river whose currents will help take you where you are going
than to try to make headway going against the force of the river.
You may get hung up on several points when conducting a SWOT analysis. First, while a factor
will usually fall into only one of the four categories, this is not always the case. A factor can be
both a strength and a weakness, or an opportunity and a threat. For example, excess capacity in a
factory would be a weakness from a production efficiency standpoint. But, it could be a strength
if the firm is looking to introduce a new product because it will not have to build a new factory.
The second and more serious issue is the difficulty in identifying opportunities. There is a
tendency to confuse opportunities with possibilities. Something the company might do, such as
franchise its operations in an effort to expand, is not an opportunity. The mention of the
organization’s name in the opportunity is a clear indication that it is not an issue from the
external environment. Both threats and opportunities would be present even if the organization
did not exist.
Third, if your professor asks you to update the case material, you must be sure to get an
explanation of what it means to update a case. To some professors, updating a case means
locating additional information about the case situation at the time the situation actually took
place. Thus, if a case situation took place in late 2003, updating that case would involve
gathering information that was published in 2003 or earlier. Using more recent information
sources can bias your strategy recommendations and conclusions. However, many professors will
prefer that you use recent sources of information to bring a case into the present day. We
personally do not recommend this approach because it usually changes the focus of the case.
What the organization did is not a key issue because there is no one right recommendation for
any case. Even if the company was successful with its subsequent strategy, it does not make that
strategy the only good option.
Finally, you are accustomed to the material in a textbook containing accurate information that
should be believed and remembered. However, in some cases, you will find statements of
opinion that are often biased by a person’s motives and position in a firm. The organization’s
CEO who has just recently given approval to the firm’s strategic plan might say, “This is an
excellent mission statement that will effectively direct our firm’s efforts for the next decade.” Is
this really true? It might be, but it will be up to you to determine what is fact as opposed to
someone’s opinion. Opinions will need to be assessed in your case analysis to determine their
Step 2: Assumptions and Missing Information
As with life, it is neither possible nor realistic for cases to contain all the information a decision
maker might wish to have available. Usually a decision maker has only bits and pieces of
information. He or she must either fill in the gaps, or make the decision that the information is
not critical, fairly predictable, or simply too costly and time-consuming to justify collecting for
the decision at hand. A marketing manager might want to know the history of competitive
reactions to price cuts by his firm. This information may be present in company files. It also
might be available from trade sources or other noncompetitive channel members.
Following the seven-step framework, in step two you will list important information not
contained in the case, why that information might be useful, and how you might go about
acquiring it. This is more than just a wish list. The items included here should considered
thoroughly. The list should contain pieces of information that would help shore up or fill gaps in
your SWOT analysis. Some of the materials may be available from secondary sources, such as
U.S. Department of Commerce reports, the Bureau of the Census, or trade publications such as
Sales & Marketing Management Magazine. Internal records will contain much of the needed
strength/weakness information, such as employee turnover or historical sales levels.
Some of the information that is not available can be addressed through assumptions. One might
assume that if information about the firm’s advertising budget were not available, it would be
equal to industry averages. The same assumptions might be made for other costs and revenues. It
is critical that these assumptions be realistic and clearly identified before and during the case
analysis. This list should contain only those items that will be truly useful in enhancing the
quality of the decisions made. It should not be a list of things that would be interesting to know.
The quality of your analysis will depend on your coverage of the framework, the depth of your
analysis, and the degree to which you can defend your recommendations.
Step 3: Statement of The Problem(s)
The identification and clear presentation of the problem(s) or issue(s) facing the company is the
most critical part of the analysis framework. Only a problem properly defined can be addressed.
Define the problem too narrowly, or miss the key problem all together, and all subsequent
framework steps will be off the mark. Getting a clear picture of the problem is one major benefit
derived from SWOT analysis.
The process of identifying problems is similar to the one people go through with their doctors. A
nurse or assistant comes in to conduct a strength and weakness assessment on you. Your vital
signs are taken and you are asked about any symptoms you may be experiencing. Symptoms are
observable manifestations or indications that a problem may be present. Symptoms are not the
problem themselves. If you have a temperature of 103 degrees, that is a symptom. If the medical
staff were to pack you in ice for several minutes, that reading would probably approach 98.6
degrees. Would that make you well? It might make your condition worse! The doctor uses the
information collected from you, with knowledge of the viruses and diseases that are present in
the external environment, to identify what has led to your high fever. The doctor will attempt to
diagnose the real problem, then prescribe treatment from a set of feasible alternatives (make
recommendations about what steps will help solve the problem) and provide you with a
prognosis (an indication of the things you can expect to occur as you are recovering).
The case analysis process is similar to the doctor’s analysis and treatment of a patient in several
basic ways. First, symptoms are the most observable indication that a problem exists. Many
students are very quick to start treating the symptoms found in a case, as opposed to digging
deeper to find the underlying problem(s). A symptom may be that sales are down from previous
periods. If this is how you define the problem, your answer might be to cut the price. This might
be an appropriate step, but not based on the analysis to this point. Sales might pick up, but will
this reaction make the company healthier? This is a clear case of prescription without adequate
The most important question in the identification of any problem is “Why?” The Why question
should always be asked after a potential problem has been proposed. To illustrate, pinpointing
the problem associated with the sales decline in our previous example might progress like this:
The problem is that sales have declined.
Why have sales declined?
Sales have declined because there are too many sales territories that are not
assigned to a salesperson.
Why are so many sales territories unassigned?
Sales territories are unassigned because sales force turnover has
doubled in the past year.
Why has sales force turnover doubled?
Turnover began to increase over a year ago when
the sales force compensation plan was altered in
order to reduced variable expenses.
When you can no longer devise a meaningful response to the Why? question, you have probably
found the problem. In this instance, the problem statement might read:
The current sales force compensation plan at XYZ Company is inadequate to retain an
acceptable percentage of the firm’s salespeople, resulting in lost customers and decreased
The problem statement should be brief—almost always one or two sentences. It should be to the
point, and it should provide a clear indication as to what must be addressed to improve the
performance of the organization.
Given this problem statement, our first reaction, to work on the symptom of reduced sales by
cutting prices, would clearly not solve the problem. When we work on symptoms, the symptom
may go away, but the problem will always manifest itself again with the same symptom, or a
related one. Cutting prices would enhance sales, but would it be profitable? And, with an
understaffed sales force, could the firm serve customers at a level that would keep them
It is often said, and very true: a problem well defined is a problem half solved. This is certainly
the situation when performing case analyses.
Step 4: Development of Alternatives
Once we have the problem clearly and succinctly defined, we are in a position to develop a set of
strategic alternatives that have a reasonable potential to solve the problem. A key problem
students face in this step is that they generate a laundry list of a dozen fairly detail-oriented items.
These items have a lot more to do with the tactics of implementing a strategy than with
presenting alternative strategies from which we will make our selections. Going back to the sales
force example above, the list may include ideas such as:
Take candidates through a more rigorous interview process
Lengthen the training program
Give every salesperson a company car
Offer both individual and regional bonuses
Increase company contribution to the retirement program for each year of employment
Conduct an employee-evaluation training program for the firm’s sales managers
While these may all be good ideas, they are not strategic alternatives. The term alternative
suggests an either/or situation. From the list above, you might include several items in your
recommendation section. Strategic alternatives should identify basic directions the firm might go
with the sales force support of its product.
One alternative is always the status quo. You must understand that this is not a means of
avoiding a decision. If recommended as the next step, it is a conscious decision, based on a
careful evaluation, that the present strategy in use, perhaps with some tactical modifications, is
the best course of action in the current situation.
Besides the status quo, you should use creative thinking to come up with several truly strategic
alternatives. For our present example, one option might be to eliminate the external sales force
and start using a manufacturer’s representative network to sell to the firm’s customers. Another
alternative would be to use direct marketing, with an inside sales force to market the product.
Another possible option is to reemphasize the sales force with a more effective sales
management program, including better selection, compensation, evaluation, and recognition of
the sales force.
Frequently, the underlying problem facing the organization is the failure to have a current, widely
used, well-developed marketing plan. If the analysis indicates this to be the case, conducting a
comprehensive strategic market planning process should be one of the alternatives listed. This is
one of the few options that might be selected in combination with some other alternative.
Step 5: Evaluation of Alternatives & Recommendations
Once you have developed a set of realistic alternatives, it is time to do a thorough evaluation of
each of the options. Three major criteria should be used in this evaluation process. First, how
well does the alternative address the problem or issue as stated in Step 3? Closely related to the
first criterion is the consistency of the alternative with the organization’s mission statement, as
well as its ability to assist in achieving the plan’s stated goals and objectives. These issues are
addressed in Chapter 2 of your textbook. Clearly, for an organization whose mission includes
providing the most innovative health care products to doctors, nurses, and patients, a low
cost/price competitive organization model would be inappropriate.
This does not mean alternatives that are not consistent with the present plan should never be
selected. It does indicate that part of the evaluation for such alternatives must address the
complete modification of the organization’s strategic plan. Likewise, an objective of increasing
profit margins from 15\% to 25\% is not consistent with the alternative of becoming a low-price
provider. The deletion, or at the very least modification, of this aspect of the plan must be
considered in evaluating this alternative.
For each alternative, you should make an effort to estimate and evaluate the cost and revenue
implications of the option. Probable income statements, under corresponding stated assumptions,
should be included for each alternative. Exhibit 1 provides an example of just such an
assessment. Costs are certainly easier to calculate than revenue projections, but an effort must be
made to do both. To conclude simply that developing a new innovative product line for the
organization, without any discussion of the costs and benefits involved, or in what year each is
likely to occur, is an incomplete and unrealistic approach to case analysis. You should use what
you have learned from your accounting and finance courses when you conduct case analyses.
Look at any financial information you are given in the case, or that you can acquire, as a key
resource in conducting your analysis.
Hypothetical Pro Forma Assessment
($3 per unit)
($2.75 per unit)
($2.50 per unit)
Sales commission (10\%)
Other selling expenses
Earnings before taxes
Units ($5 per unit)
The final criterion is an important one that relates to the feasibility and probable success of each
alternative: How well do the alternatives coincide with the key findings from the SWOT Analysis
you conducted in Step 1? In other words, how well does each alternative match up with the
internal and external environments of the organization? Does the organization have, or can it
realistically acquire, the human and financial resources required by each alternative? Building
additional capacity to increase volume as the low-price provider is probably not a reasonable
alternative for an organization in great financial difficulty. Conversely, for a firm with limited
history and investment in research and development, becoming the innovative leader in the
industry will not be possible in the near term.
The external environment, in terms of the economy, competition, regulation, and cultural trends,
will have a major impact on the pro forma revenue projections you make in this step. Any
alternative that adds pollution to the environment will not be well received today. Often,
alternative analyses assume the competition is an inanimate object. Thinking that competitors
will stand still while you steal their customers with a new marketing strategy is not at all realistic.
Part of the evaluation of alternatives, and making projections about their potential success, is to
use the assessment of the external environment to make assumptions about what key competitors
will do. You must remember that as one company is setting a course for the future, most of its
effective competitors are doing likewise.
The recommendation portion of this step is often included as a separate phase in the case analysis
framework. We include evaluation with recommendation because, if the former is done well, the
latter should be a natural continuation of the process. The alternative chosen is the one that
stands up best in terms of all three criteria: consistency with mission, goals and objectives as
stated or as modified, strongest probable financial performance, and harmony with the internal
and external environments of the organization. With a thorough evaluation, the recommended
alternative should be a natural move. This does not mean that two alternatives will never be close
in terms of their attractiveness, but usually one will be a better match for the organization as a
One more note: Become accustomed to making recommendations in the face of unknown
economic or competitive conditions. While you will be able to know some things for certain
(such as gross domestic product or consumer spending), no one can possibly predict all future
events. As long as your evaluation is thorough, and your assumptions are clearly stated and
reasonable, your recommendations will be justified.
Step 6: Implementation
This step has historically been omitted from the strategic planning process. However, in modern
strategic planning, implementation has become so critical that we devoted all of Chapter 11 in
your textbook to its discussion. Implementation includes actions to be taken, the sequencing of
marketing activities, and a time frame for their completion. A timeline, like the one shown in
Exhibit 2, can be a very useful tool in directing the implementation discussion. Students are often
very optimistic in terms of the time needed to carry out certain tasks. However, small things, like
the development of a questionnaire and the collection and analysis of data, can take several
weeks, if not months. Be careful to provide reasonable amounts of time for each step.
A Hypothetical Implementation Timeline
Conduct customer surveys
Collect media information
Analyze data and present results
Develop sales force training
Conduct sales force training
Develop and send promotional
materials to dealers
Roll out program in selected regions
with both personal and mass
It is frequently noted that Americans are great innovators, while the Japanese are great
implementers. In U.S. organizations, the selection of the alternative to be pursued is often made
on a majority-rules basis. If ten people are on the decision-making team, and six speak in favor of
introducing a new product line and four speak against it, a decision to introduce the new line is
the likely result. Under this system, six people leave the room with their reputation on the line to
make the decision work, but what about the other four? Will they be committed to the project?
This can cause serious problems in implementing the selected alternative. Contrast this process
with the traditional decision-making process in Japanese organizations, where an alternative is
not chosen until everyone agrees that it is the appropriate course of action. The selection process
is much more time consuming, and often requires compromises that can make the selected
alternative less distinctive. On the plus side, everyone leaves the process agreeing that the
selected course of action is best. With everyone working together, implementation becomes a
much easier process.
This aspect of the decision-making process makes internal marketing a critical issue that you
must address in your discussion of the implementation phase. Who will be the critical players in
carrying out the plan? Are they likely to be naturally in favor of the selected alternative? What
can be done to get them on board? Giving more people, particularly frontline personnel, more
input during the decision-making process will be a plus here. Top-down planning often creates
resistance in the implementation phase. Part of the problem with some strategic plans is that the
frontline employees, those people who are most likely to come in contact with suppliers and
customers, feel that the plan “handed down” is not realistic given what they know about the dayto-day working environment. They may feel that management is out of touch. Getting their input
early and late in the planning process can go a long way toward easing the implementation of the
In all instances, it is very difficult for employees to market the firm and its products as planned
until the plan has been marketed to them. Internal marketing plays a major role in determining
the success of the plan. If employees can be shown they will get things they value by helping the
firm carry out this plan, the process has an excellent chance for success. Many managers feel that
they would rather have a mediocre plan vigorously implemented, than an excellent plan
implemented in a mediocre fashion.
Step 7: Evaluation and Control
As the firm is implementing the selected alternative, it must constantly monitor the results
achieved. What do you expect this chosen alternative to accomplish, and by when? This is a
major concern, as the firm must determine if the selected strategy is working as anticipated. Clear
objectives must be set. A 20\% increase in awareness and a 10\% increase in sales within six
months are possible examples of the benchmarks that might be used to determine if the selected
alternative is on course.
If objectives are not being met by the targeted dates, a tough decision must be made. Is it a poorly
devised strategy, poor implementation, or an unfavorable environment that is leading to these
results? The answer to this question will dictate how the organization will respond. As we said
earlier, planning cannot assume an inanimate set of competitors. If your recommendation is to cut
price and expand distribution, can you reasonably assume that competitors will do nothing and
let you take their business away without a fight? This is seldom the case. The competitive
situation will almost always change, sometimes significantly. Other external environmental
factors, such as the economy or technology, may also not remain constant or turn out as planned.
Such changes that result in outcomes that do not meet expectations point to the need for the
development of contingency plans. Contingency plans are not centered on the most preferred
alternative under the present conditions, but are a “fall-back” position in case things do not work
out as planned for the selected alternative. For example, more expensive, upscale products might
have been recommended for the firm. If the competition slashes prices at the same time the
economy weakens, the firm might need to respond by implementing a contingency plan. To
blindly carry out a strategy that no longer matches the environment is an almost certain route to
failure. In this instance, a contingency plan of heavy sales promotion might need to be
implemented. Firms can try to predict what future environments will be like, but they cannot
guarantee the future external environment with much certainty.
We conclude with one final piece of advice: Like anything else, the learning benefits of case
analysis are dependent on the amount of effort you put into the analysis. Learning to think
critically and see the big picture are important lessons to be learned in a case course. Likewise,
learning how business activities (not just marketing activities) can be strategically integrated to
achieve superior results is the ultimate goal.
Case Analysis: USA Today
During this course you will be asked to do two things: 1) analyze other organizations
marketing strategies, and 2) write a Marketing Plan for a company of your choice.
To help you understand the elements of a marketing strategy/plan, 3 case studies will
be presented to you. You will learn to analyze case studies during weeks 1, 4, and
7. This knowledge will prepare you to write the components/elements of your
Marketing Plan in weeks 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8.
Read How to Analyze a Case in the lesson folder.
Read Case 1: USA Today in textbook appendix
Write an analysis paper on the USA Today case study. Within your paper be sure to
answer the following questions:
1. What opportunities in the marketing environment did Gannett seize in launching
USA Today? How did the company learn about and responds to these opportunities?
Answer the same questions for USAToday.com
2. How has a continuous strategy of marketing innovation proved successful for
USA Today as it looks toward its future? Explain.
3. Based on USA Todays experiences with print and online news, evaluate the longterm potential of printed news and the newspapers publishing industry. Do you
believe printed newspapers will continue to survive despite digital competition?
The requirements below must be met for your paper to be accepted and graded:
Write between 500 – 750 words (approximately 2 – 3 pages) using Microsoft Word in
APA style, see example below.
Use font size 12 and 1” margins.
Include cover page and reference page.
At least 80\% of your paper must be original content/writing.
No more than 20\% of your content/information may come from references.
Use at least three references from outside the course material, one reference must be
from EBSCOhost. Text book, lectures, and other materials in the course may be used,
but are not counted toward the three reference requirement.
Cite all reference material (data, dates, graphs, quotes, paraphrased words, values,
etc.) in the paper and list on a reference page in APA style.
References must come from sources such as, scholarly journals found in EBSCOhost,
CNN, online newspapers such as, The Wall Street Journal, government websites, etc.
Sources such as, Wikis, Yahoo Answers, eHow, blogs, etc. are not acceptable for
Evolving to Meet the Future
Questions for Discussion
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