Identify alternative grading methods for students with special needs.Provide examples of appropriate uses of each alternative grading method.In addition, provide 1 to 2 resources.Rubrics, holistic scoring, and checklist grading are three methods to simplify and speed grading of papers. Rubrics, which are simple guidelines, can help individual instructors clarify their grading standards for themselves and their students. Holistic scoring, which uses simplified scoring and rubrics, can provide both individuals and groups with fast, objective grading systems. Checklist grading, which uses a prepared list of requirements, can offer students more detailed advice, practice, and mastery of techniques. There are alternative methods of grading using a rubric: (1) You may offer the rubric to students as a general guideline, then grade holistically: that is, you may tell students the rubric represents what you tend to look for but, when you evaluate, you will read the paper and then give it a single letter grade according to what seems right. (2) Another common alternative is to provide a score for each criterion in your rubric, with equal weight given to each, such that the overall grade represents the average of the individual criteria (e.g., by having five criteria that earn scores of C B A C A or 2 3 4 2 4, the average of which is a clear B or 3). (3) A third alternative is to give each criterion an individual score but weigh some criteria differently (e.g., by having, say, four criteria, with one counting as 60\% of the grade and the other three as 20\% each). There are several characteristics of a typical rubric used to evaluating writing. First, a rubric usually has just a few easily- remembered main criteria–often two to six. Second, the elements of a rubric usually are equal to each other in grading value, though this need not necessarily be so, as some instructors may wish to give greater weight to one or more of the requirements. Third, a rubric provides students with a simplified guide to how the instructor grades: it is not a complete, detailed list of what the instructor expects, but rather a simplified summary of them. However, fourth, this simplified summary also provides key words and concepts for the instructor to unfold as further explanation and instruction. Fifth, as both an evaluative and a teaching tool, a well-made rubric is easily formulated as a set of questions. Authentic grading methods have become popular in recent years. Authentic assessments provide multiple methods for students to demonstrate what they can and cannot do. In addition, authentic assessments are used to plan instructions and guide lesson activities. Individual have various strengths and weaknesses in how we construct knowledge. Likewise, we are different in how we demonstrate what we have understood. The traditional methods model, answering questions and multiple choice quizzes will not capture the true knowledge. For example, one authentic assessment I would apply in the classroom surround mathematics. Provide students with a two-digit division problem to solve. The correct first step would be to ensure the divisor can go into the dividend. If the student does not know the answer, how can the teacher know what the student does not understand without demonstrating? The benefits of using individual grading method, the teacher is better able to see the step-by-step manipulation process carried out by the student and make immediate corrections when needed, rather than waiting for the student to finish and possibly fail the task. This form of assessment is called scaffolding. Instructional scaffolding is a constructive teaching and learning process designed by Jerome Bruner in the late 1950s to promote a deeper level of learning. Bruner, a philosopher and constructive theorist; teaches educators to guide the students learning through discovery and scaffolding. In the traditional grading method model, teaching and learning are often separated from assessment, i.e., a test is administered after knowledge or skills has (hopefully) been acquired. In the authentic assessment model, the same authentic task used to measure the students ability to apply the knowledge or skills is used as a vehicle for student learning. For example, when presented a real-world problem to solve, students are learning in the process of developing a solution, teachers are facilitating the process, and the students solutions to the problem become an assessment of how well the students can meaningfully apply the concepts. Bruner, J. S., & Ross, G. (1976). The role of tutoring in problem solving. Journal of Child Psychiatry and Psychology, 17(2), 89-100.
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