The final portfolio requires you to go over your discussion posts since the beginning of the semester and choose 2 pages (MS Word) worth of posts that you consider to be your best work. Cut and paste your posts in a Word file to make sure you meet the length requirement.What makes this work best? You must answer this question by setting out the context of the posts and what you did to enlighten, illuminate, clarify, set right, etc. You could, for example, refer to what others were saying and how you came in and changed the course of the conversation. Show your contribution. The explanation of why this work is good will add further to the 2 pages of the post. You have the choice of addressing each post separately or together. But I assume that the total length of the assignment will be in the 3-4 page range.****ATTACHED IS MY 2 PAGES WORTH OF MY DISCUSSION BOARD POST*** PLEASE ADDRESS EACH POST INDIVIDUALLY***ALSO IM ATTACHING THE PEER RESPONSES TO EACH OF MY POST JUST AS A REFERENCEDiscussion Board: War and Peace
In this week’s discussion after the Second World War and the cold war, great powers have
advanced their agendas using war. The existence of nuclear weapons in the great powers has
made the idea of war unthinkable. The experience of the Second World War has also dreaded the
countries that took part in it from engaging in any other force related activities. The just war has
replaced the real war over time. In just war is one which a body of work requires that war is just
and also separates two parties involved in the just war. In the Post-World War II era, ArabIsraeli war has been the enduring case of war. Even though Israel has huge military superiority,
the war between them is apparently endless. The Israeli has been unable to solve the problem and
has been unable to impose a military victory. Another reason is that this war is part of the
national narratives in both Palestine and Israel. The Palestinians have been pushed and
segregated into the West Bank and Gaza. Of the two sides, none seems willing to commit to any
peace creation efforts.
For one, the losers in the wars do not want to accept the failure. Even though they do not have
to, it is important to reach an agreement. It is impossible for a nation to punish another even
though it can defeat it. There exist differences between the scholars on how to go about the issue
of separating the extremist groups from the societies that support them. The security dilemma is
a dominant offense tactic. The security dilemma finds its base in the conditions of anarchy that
most countries in war experience. The central issues in the international affairs are not only the
security dilemma but also the problem of collective action. All the actors in the game theory
expect the action of other players in the game to make their moves. It applies the same way in
trying to end a war. Another critical aspect of the game theory is interactive or strategic. All the
games involve the actors trying to find out what their opponent is doing. Under certain
conditions of anarchy, it is possible to imagine the cooperation of members that are involved in a
war.
Terrorism has been perceived to be effective when there are changes in the state policy.
However, the attackers have little attention to the changes in the state policies in the countries
they wish to attack. A robust multilevel framework for analyzing the effectiveness of terrorism
includes tactical, strategic and organizational elements. There are several conditions in which
terrorism can spread or kill ideas. Terrorism can also polarize, strengthen or destroy
organizations and inspire fear in individuals. There is a success in one area that affects or
contradicts success in another area in conditions of anarchy.
Discussion Board: Ethnic, Conflict and Conflict
In this week’s readings it has been assumed that one of the fundamental differences between
societies is the extent to which they experience ethnic conflicts. According to Varshney,
ethnicity is a particular racial or linguistic group, but this definition is narrow. On a broader
perspective, ethnicity includes any non-functional description of a group including religion, tribe,
and caste. Conflict is brought by ethnicity because first, ethnic differences are real and fixed over
time such that they will cause some conflict to occur because once racial consciousness is
established; it becomes fixed for a long time. For those who view ethnicity this way, they believe
to prevent the conflict, separating ethnic groups into different countries is the first way, but again
this makes the conflict international. Secondly, imposing a higher authority over ethnic groups
that can prevent open conflicts between them. Another view about ethnicity is that it is the result
of actions of leaders. An example is a state creating conflict through its discriminatory policies
including Italy.
Ethnicity began a long time ago, specifically at the end of the Cold War. Most countries in the
region began to fall apart into ethnically-organized territories after the collapse of the Soviet bloc
and the Soviet Union, for example, Yugoslavia broke into Serbia, Croatia, Slovenia, and BosniaHerzegovina. This view ethnicity creation has been considered as valid. Different writers
including Posen and Svante Cornell look at ethnicity differently. Posen thinks that when a state
falls, and there is no higher government, ethnic groups begin behaving like new states hence
seeing anarchic conditions and they start to self-help. Svante offers evidence from the Caucasus
explaining that ethnicity is created by ethnic-federalism which exacerbates ethnicity by keeping
it longer. Cornell’s view of ethnicity is taken to be dim.
India and Pakistan are counterexamples to Cornell’s explanation. After their separation due to
British Rule, India practiced Hinduism, and Pakistan became Muslims. Varshney addresses the
puzzle of why some communities break out of the Hindu-Muslim rioting while others do not.
First, he finds the most religious violence in the cities and not the villages. Secondly, he
concludes that cities are less vulnerable than others to rioting. Thirdly, he explains that most
formal social associations are involved in worsening and mitigating violence. Conclusively, of
the three articles, Varshney explanations is the most sophisticated and well-argued one.
Discussion Board: Inequality
The two articles which are presented in this work points out to a challenge that exists in the
world economies. The article by Douglas on puzzles in the economic development lays a good
base for the establishment of an argument on economic development and growth. The author
uses metrics for measuring economic growth and economic development in the world (North,
2016). He points out the differences in the economies for the developed and developing nations
and the reasons for such inequalities. He brings country by country comparisons on their rise and
fall of economic growth and developments, there are various reasons for this such as the varying
economic drivers. All these are perfectly addressed in the inequality article. The approach on
inequality is approached differently by Ian parker in ‘The Poverty Lab Article’ This article
provides the various approaches that can be used in different markets in the world to alleviate
poverty and bridge the inequality margin between the developed and the developing nations.
Focus is laid on Esther Duflo who has made many trips around the world to assess the various
approaches that can be used to achieve this. This is drawn from the understanding that there are
different cases and economies are different. The article draws case specific issues such as the
Rwandese, Indian among other countries and the various strategies for intervening the inequality
gaps in these developing nations. Duflo focuses on wealth redistribution and makes various
contacts with influential individuals in the world to bring her ideals to reality (Parker, 2010).
These are people like Bill Gates in order to secure funding for her work in the world. Through
this, the poverty lab becomes an equality advocate and assists in redistribution of wealth to
achieve this.
PEER RESPONSES TO MY DISCUSSION POST
WAR AND PEACE
1. I enjoyed reading your post. You explained Jervis article really well, his articles was a
little harder for me to understand everything fully so your post helped. What stuck out to
me was Krauses measure to the effectiveness to terrorism which was tactical,
organizational, for political ends strategic. And when he explained the varying success, as
they move from tactical to organizational to strategic effectiveness, the following key
factors generally increase: “a) the number of actors involved (and therefore veto players)
b) the target’s degree of interest c) the target’s risk-tolerance d) the magnitude of the
desired concession. The higher the value on each of these variables, the more likely that
terrorism will be ineffective.” He finds that terrorist groups have succeeded in tactical
and organization but not so much in strategies/political.
ETHNIC, CONFLICT AND VIOLENCE
1. I love how you discussed the issue of ethnicity in detail when you discuss the three
articles. I especially like your summary of the first article by Varshney. In this article,
Varshney discusses how ethnic differences lead to ethnic conflict and violence. I think its
very interesting how we have yet to come up with a successful solution to this problem.
The article discusses the idea of separating ethnicities in countries; but of course this is
wrong, it is basically segregation and it would only further ethnic distrust or prejudice
between groups. I do not know how I feel about imposing a higher authority over ethnic
groups. Would that mean each group has its own authority? And if so, is the authority of
the same group? Im sure the article explained this more thoroughly, I just must not have
the best understanding of it. However, I did conclude that ethnic conflict/violence has
long been an issue in all nations, and there may not be a real solution for the whole
problem.
2. I agree Cornells view of ethnicity is taken to be dim. He states that given the multitude
of ethnic groups in the world, advocates of autonomy argue that group rights need to be
recognized below the state level in order to avoid the proliferation of hundreds of
additional states. Who is the traditional structure of the international
system already threatened by? I was not aware Regional autonomy implies the
introduction of ethno territoriality territorial control linked to ethnicity. Good job on this
week discussion.
3. You well introduced the topic and did a great summary of each authors article. I would
like to add on the repartition of ethnic groups into countries which contributes to the
survival of ethnic conflicts like you said. I think that you right and I share the same
reasoning with you on that. I think that ethnic groups organized in sovereign countries,
would be tempted to make other ethnicities their vassal. Even Cornell who is in favor of
ethno federalism recognizes its limitations.
INEQUALITY
1. I like your summary of the articles. I liked Duflos article a lot because it got
personal and it involved multiple experiments. One experiment was about
absentees with teachers. A non-profit group made teachers basically get paid if
they showed up to do their job. They got paid if they attended. More teachers
showed up and students became more successful. I liked how you brought up
Bill Gates, he really does fund what she believes in. Norths article took a very
good economic standpoint and he talked about organizations and institutions
playing major roles in society. His transaction cost was precise. Some
countries became more successful while some did not and it created
inequality.
2. I enjoyed reading your post and how you brought up Bill Gates, I agree he would
probably fund her work. It was really cool to see all the work Duflo had done in India
and the changes she is trying to make. One of the things that stuck out to me was
when she was talking about the women as leaders in villages. She found t hat in
villages that never had women leaders were judged less competent but in villages that
had been led by a female sarpanch there wasn’t any bias. The findings were the first
credible evidence Duflo had seen for the idea that public policy can influence voter
prejudice. She went on to say about her findings that “any community that starts
considering women candidates for the first time doubles the size of its leadership
pool, and should therefore expect policy benefits. Economists can recognize that as a
gain.
3. I enjoyed your summary of the readings. I feel as if in addition to Duflo studying the
ways in which to curb inequality, she also feels humans can influence or stimulate
growth through their actions. From reading Norths article, I felt as if he saw
economic growth as a slow process tied to belief system, and a countrys history and
norms. In fact, North states that there is no guarantee that the economic decline will
induce perceptions that will lead to a reversal of that decline and to improved
performance. What constraints the choices of the players is a belief system reflecting
the past and its gradual alteration reflecting the current experiences as filtered by the
belief system. That point is best illustrated by the history of the New World and
how Americas north and south of the Rio Grande differ, and followed path
dependence

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