ABA unit 6 DB Part 1: Select one of the following research designs: ABAB Reversal Design; Multiple Baseline Design; Alternating Treatments Design; or Changing Criterion Design. Provide a brief overview of your selected research design and discuss types of situations in which the design would work best and those situations in which the design would not work. Part 2: When evaluating graphic displays, what do the terms “level,” “trend,” and “variability” mean? How do these terms relate to the use of visual analysis to determine the effectiveness of an intervention?350 words APA format with referencesChapter 6:
Constructing and Interpreting Graphic
Displays of Behavioral Data
Cooper, Heron, and Heward
Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition
Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved
Chapter Focus Questions






What are the benefits of graphic display and visual
analysis of behavioral data?
What are the fundamental properties of behavior
change over time?
What are the different visual formats for the graphic
display of behavioral data? What are the relative
strengths and limitations of each visual format?
What are the basic parts of a properly constructed line
graph?
What is the purpose of visual analysis?
How is a visual analysis of behavioral data conducted?
Cooper, Heron, and Heward
Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition
Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved
Direct and Repeated Measurement
of Behavior
• Data
– Medium with which the behavior analyst works
– Results of measurement
– Empirical basis for decision making
– Plural
• These data are
Cooper, Heron, and Heward
Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition
Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved
Direct and Repeated Measurement
of Behavior
• Consecutive
measures, over time
• Data series vs.
graphic display
Number Correct
Condition A
12
15
Condition
B
14
21
13
24
Percentage of correct responses
70, 72, 71, 87,90, 85, 73
Cooper, Heron, and Heward
Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition
Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved
Graphic Display
Cooper, Heron, and Heward
Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition
Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved
Graphic Display
Cooper, Heron, and Heward
Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition
Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved
Purpose & Benefits of Graphic Display
• Graphic displays
– Primary function communication
– Display relationships between dependent
variable and independent variable
– Summarization of data collected
– Facilitates of accurate analyses
Cooper, Heron, and Heward
Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition
Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved
Purpose & Benefits of Graphic Display
• Benefits
– Immediate access to record of behavior
– Variations prompt exploration
– Provides judgmental aid
• Relatively easy to learn, no predetermined level for
determining significance of change, no mathematical
properties required
– Conservative method
– Encourages independent judgment & interpretation
– Effective source of feedback
Cooper, Heron, and Heward
Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition
Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved
Fundamental Properties of Behavior
Change
• Level
• Trend
• Variability
Cooper, Heron, and Heward
Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition
Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved
Types of Graphs Utilized in ABA




Line graph
Bar graphs
Cumulative record
Semilogarithmic charts
– Standard Celeration Chart
• Scatterplots
Cooper, Heron, and Heward
Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition
Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved
Types of Graphs Utilized in
ABA Line Graph
• Based on the Cartesian plane
– Two-dimensional area formed by intersecting
lines
– Points on the plane represent relationships
• Level of the dependent variable when the
independent variable was in effect
– Comparisons of data points reveals the
presence or absence of changes in level,
trend, and/or variability
Cooper, Heron, and Heward
Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition
Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved
Parts of a Line Graph




Horizontal axis
Vertical axis
Condition change lines
Condition labels
– Phase and condition
• Data points
• Data path
• Figure Caption
Cooper, Heron, and Heward
Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition
Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved
Figure 5. Rates of hits during baseline and the blocking condition for Arlo.
Figure Legend
Cooper, Heron, and Heward
Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition
Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved
Line Graph Variations
• Two or more dimensions of the same
behavior
• Two or more different behaviors
• Measure of the same behavior under
different conditions
• Changing values of the independent
variable
• Same behavior of two or more participants
Cooper, Heron, and Heward
Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition
Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved
Types of Graphs Utilized in ABA
Bar Graph
• Based on the Cartesian plane
– No distinct data points representing successive
response measures through time
– Functions
• Displaying and comparing discrete sets of data that ARE
NOT related by a common underlying dimension by which
the horizontal axis can be scaled (Example)
• Visual summary of participant or group performance during
different experimental conditions
– Provides efficient summary of data
• DOES NOT allow for analysis of variability & trends in
behavior
Cooper, Heron, and Heward
Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition
Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved
Sample Bar Graph
\% Completion
Percent Completion/Accuracy
\% Accuracy
Baseline
Cooper, Heron, and Heward
Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition
Generalization/Maintenance
Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Types of Graphs Utilized in ABA
Cumulative Record
• Developed by Skinner
– Primary means of data collection in EAB
– Cumulative recorder
• Experimental subject draws its own graph
– Shows the number of responses on the
ordinate against time on the abscissa
Cooper, Heron, and Heward
Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition
Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved
Types of Graphs Utilized in ABA
Cumulative Record
• Number of responses recorded and added
to the total number of responses recorded
during previous observations
– Cumulative
• Y-Axis (vertical axis)
– Represents the total number of responses
recorded since the start of data collection
Cooper, Heron, and Heward
Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition
Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved
Types of Graphs Utilized in ABA
Cumulative Record
• Display
– Total number of responses at any given point
in time
• Relative rates of response
– The steeper the slope, the higher the
response rate
• Overall response rate
• Local response rate
Cooper, Heron, and Heward
Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition
Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved
Cumulative Number Correct
Types of Graphs Utilized in ABA
Cumulative Record
The steeper the slope, the
higher the response rate
Sessions
Cooper, Heron, and Heward
Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition
Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved
Types of Graphs Utilized in ABA
Cumulative Record
• When to use cumulative graph over noncumulative
graph
– Progress toward a specific goal can be measured in
cumulative units
• E.g., Number of new words learned, quarters saved
– Graph is used as personal feedback
• Total progress and relative rate of performance easily detected
– Target behavior can only occur once per observation period
• Yes/No
– Intricate details between behavior & environmental variables
are of interest
• E.g., Within session analyses
Cooper, Heron, and Heward
Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition
Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved
Equal-interval Graphs
• Distance between any two consecutive
points on each axis is always the same
– Increase/decrease in performance expressed
by equal distances on the y-axis
– Distance between sessions, days, etc.
expressed by equal distance on the x-axis
Cooper, Heron, and Heward
Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition
Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved
Types of Graphs Utilized in ABA
Semilogarithmic Charts
• Ratio or multiply-divide charts
– One axis is scaled proportionally
– Double response rate 4 to 8 same as 50 to
100
• All behavior changes of equal proportion
are shown by equal vertical distances on
the vertical axis
Cooper, Heron, and Heward
Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition
Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved
Types of Graphs Utilized in ABA
Standard Celeration Chart
• Developed by Ogden Lindsley
• Standardized method for
– Charting & analyzing how frequency of
behavior changes over time
Cooper, Heron, and Heward
Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition
Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved
Types of Graphs Utilized in ABA
Standard Celeration Chart
From the Journal of Precision Teaching and Celeration, 19(1), p. 54. Copyright 2002 by The Standard Celeration
Society. Used by permission.
Cooper, Heron, and Heward
Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition
Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved
Types of Graphs Utilized in ABA
Standard Celeration Chart
• Four standard charts
– Difference in scaling on horizontal axis




Daily chart (140 calendar days)
Weekly chart
Monthly chart
Yearly chart
• What’s standard about the standard
celeration chart?
– Consistent display of celeration
Cooper, Heron, and Heward
Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition
Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved
Types of Graphs Utilized in ABA
Standard Celeration Chart
• Celeration
– Linear measure of frequency change across time
– A factor by which frequency multiples or divides per
unit of time
• Acceleration – accelerating performance
• Deceleration – decelerating performance
• Standard chart
– Six, X 10 cycles (vertical axis)
• 1 per 24 hrs
• 1,000 per minute
– Bottom left to top right corner
• Slope of 34° – celeration value X2
Cooper, Heron, and Heward
Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition
Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved
Standard Celeration Chart &
Precision Teaching
• Precision Teaching
– Instructional decision-making system
– Developed for use with standard celeration chart
• Position
– Learning best measured as a change in response
rate
– Learning most often occurs through proportional
changes in behavior
– Past changes can predict future learning
• Chart uses estimations for most frequency
values
Cooper, Heron, and Heward
Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition
Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved
Types of Graphs Utilized in
ABA Scatterplot
• Shows relative distribution of individual
measures in a data set
• Data points are unconnected
• Depicts changes in value on one axis
correlated with changes in value on the
other axis
• Patterns suggest certain relationships
– Sometimes used to discover the temporal
distribution of the target behavior
Cooper, Heron, and Heward
Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition
Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved
Types of Graphs Utilized in
ABA Scatterplot
From “A Technology to Measure Multiple Driving Behaviors without Self-Report or Participant Reactivity” by T. E. Boyce
and E. S. Geller, 2001, Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 34, p. 49. Copyright 2001 by the Society for the
Experimental Analysis of Behavior, Inc. Used by permission.
Cooper, Heron, and Heward
Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition
Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved
Constructing Line Graphs
• An effective graph presents data
– Accurately
– Completely
– Clearly
– Makes visual analysis as easy as possible
– Does not create distortion or bias
interpretation
Cooper, Heron, and Heward
Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition
Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved
Constructing Line Graphs
Drawing, scaling, & labeling axes
• Use a balanced ratio between the height and
width of the axes
• Relative length of the vertical axis to horizontal
axis
– Suggestions
• 5:8; 3:4; 1:1.6 ratio y-axis to x-axis
• Horizontal axis
– Mark equal intervals
– Left to right chronological succession of equal time
periods or response opportunities
– Use regularly spaced tic marks
Cooper, Heron, and Heward
Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition
Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved
Constructing Line Graphs
Drawing, scaling, & labeling axes
• Use a scale break to represent
discontinuities in the progression of time
Regularly
spaced tic marks
~
~
Scale break
Cooper, Heron, and Heward
Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition
Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved
Constructing Line Graphs
Drawing, scaling, & labeling axes
• Scaling of vertical axis
– Most significant feature of the graph
– Mark the origin at zero
– Mark the full range of values represented in
the data set
Good Practice: Plot the data set against several different vertical axis scales –
watch for distortion that may lead to inaccurate interpretations
– If relatively small changes in performance are
socially significant
• Y-Axis should reflect a smaller range of values
Cooper, Heron, and Heward
Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition
Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved
• Brief
label,
printed,
centered
to the
left and
parallel
to the
vertical
axis
Hits per minute
Constructing Line Graphs
Labeling vertical axis
Cooper, Heron, and Heward
Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition
Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved
Constructing Line Graphs
Condition Change Lines
•Vertical lines
•Extend upward
•Indicate change in treatment or
experimental condition
•Solid or dashed lines
•Major changes – solid
•Minor changes – dashed
•Asterisks (*), arrows () or
other symbols to indicate
small changes
Cooper, Heron, and Heward
Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition
Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved
Constructing Line Graphs
Baseline
Blocking
Condition Change Labels
•Identify conditions in effect
during each period of the
experiment
•Centered above & between
condition change lines
•Brief, but descriptive labels
Cooper, Heron, and Heward
Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition
Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved
Constructing Line Graphs
Data Points & Data Paths
• Place each data point in the exact
coordinate of the horizontal and vertical
axis
– If graphing by hand – use a graph paper with
appropriately spaced grid lines
• Use bold, easily discernable symbols
– Use a different symbol for each set of data
Cooper, Heron, and Heward
Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition
Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved
Constructing Line Graphs
Data Points & Data Paths
• Draw data paths using a straight line
– The center of each data point in a given data
set to the center of the next data point in the
same set
Cooper, Heron, and Heward
Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition
Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved
Constructing Line Graphs
Data Points & Data Paths
• DO NOT CONNECT DATA POINTS IF…
– Points fall on either side of a condition change line
– A significant span of time passed and behavior was not
measured
– There was a discontinuity in time in the horizontal axis
(e.g., school vacation)
• Data were not collected, lost, etc.
– It is follow-up or post-check data
• Unless intersession time span same as original experiment
– Data points fall beyond the values described by the
vertical axis
Cooper, Heron, and Heward
Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition
Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved
Constructing Line Graphs
Data Points & Data Paths
• Use different styles of lines for multiple data
paths on the same graph
• Clearly identify what each data path
represents
– Use arrows or a legend
Cooper, Heron, and Heward
Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition
Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved
Constructing Line Graphs
Figure Caption & Printing
• Figure caption
– Printed below the graph
– Concise, complete description of figure
• Direct viewers attention to features of the graph that
may be overlooked
– E.g., scale changes
• Describe the meaning of any added symbols
• Print graphs in one color – black
Cooper, Heron, and Heward
Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition
Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved
Constructing Graphs –
Using Computer Software
• Use with caution
– Check the range of scales available
– Check the accuracy of data point plotting
– Check the precision of data paths
• Further information
– Carr & Burkholder (1998)
– Silvestri (2003)
• www.prenhall.com/cooper
Cooper, Heron, and Heward
Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition
Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved
Interpreting Graphically Displayed
Behavioral Data
• Visual analysis
– Did behavior change in a meaningful way?
• If so, to what extent can that change in behavior be
attributed to the independent variable?
– Identification of
• Variability
• Level
• Trend
Cooper, Heron, and Heward
Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition
Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved
Interpreting Graphically Displayed
Behavioral Data
“It is impossible to interpret graphic data
without being influenced by various
characteristics of the graph itself.”
– Johnson & Pennypacker, 1993b, p. 320
Cooper, Heron, and Heward
Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition
Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved
Interpreting Graphically Displayed
Behavioral Data
• Read the graph
– Figure caption
– Condition & axis labels
– Location of numerical value & relative
significance of scale breaks
• Visually track each data path
– Are data paths properly connected?
– Is the graph distorted?
Cooper, Heron, and Heward
Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition
Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved
Interpreting Graphically Displayed
Behavioral Data
• Visual analysis
– Within conditions




Number of data points
Nature & extent of variability in the data
Absolute & relative level of the behavioral measure
Direction & degree of any trends in the data
Cooper, Heron, and Heward
Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition
Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved
Interpreting Graphically Displayed
Behavioral Data
• Visual analysis
– Between conditions
• Level
– Mean or median level lines
• Trend
• Stability/Variability
– Across similar conditions
Cooper, Heron, and Heward
Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition
Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved
Interpreting Graphically Displayed
Behavioral Data
• Level
– Value on the vertical axis around which a
series of data points converge
– Stability
• When data points fall at or near a specific level
– Mean or median lines
• Added to represent overall average or typical
performance
• Use with caution – can obscure important variability
Cooper, Heron, and Heward
Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition
Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved
Interpreting Graphically Displayed
Behavioral Data
• Trend
– Overall direction taken by the data path
• Direction
– Increasing, decreasing, or zero trend
• Degree
– Gradual or steep
• Extent of variability
– Trend line or line of progress
• Freehand, least-squares regression equation, or
split-middle line of progress
Cooper, Heron, and Heward
Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition
Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved
Interpreting Graphically Displayed
Behavioral Data
• Variability/Stability
– Frequency and degree to which multiple
measures of behavior yield different outcomes
• High degree of variability
– Little or no control over the factors influencing behavior
Cooper, Heron, and Heward
Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition
Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved
Chapter 3
Graphing Behavior and
Measuring Change
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A Graph
Shows the level of behavior over time
Makes it easier to compare the level of
behavior before and after treatment
Used in research and practice to evaluate
behavior change
Used in research to demonstrate a
functional relationship
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Evaluating Graphed Data
Level
Trend
Variability
Degree of overlapping data across phases
Other factors
– Reactivity
– Interventions that take time to work
– Follow-up assessment
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Components of a Graph
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
The Y axis and X axis (Figure 3.2)
Axis labels (Figure 3.3)
Axis numbers (Figure 3.4)
Data points (Figure 3.5)
Phase lines (Figure 3.6)
Phase labels (Figure 3.7)
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Purpose of Research in
Behavior Modification
Evaluate the effectiveness of treatment
Demonstrate a functional relationship
between environmental events and
behavior (show that the environmental
event / treatment caused the behavior to
change)
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The Research Method in Behavior
Modification
1. Measure the dependent variable (target
behavior)
2. Manipulate the independent variable
(environmental events / treatment) and
demonstrate a change in the target
behavior
3. Replicate
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© 2016 Cengage Learning: All Rights
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Behavior Modification Research
Designs
A-B design (not a research design)
A-B-A-B reversal design and variations
Multiple baseline design
– Across subjects
– Across behaviors
– Across settings
Alternating treatments design
Changing criterion design
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A-B Design
(Figure 3.1)
One baseline and one treatment phase
A = baseline B = treatment
Not a true research design / No replication
Does not demonstrate a functional
relationship
Used in clinical practice, self-management
projects
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© 2016 Cengage Learning: All Rights
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A-B-A-B Reversal Design
(Figure 3.11)
Baseline and treatment phases
implemented twice for one behavior of one
subject
Demonstrates a functional relationship
Variations
Considerations
– Is it ethical to remove treatment?
– Can treatment be removed?
– Will the level of the behavior reverse?
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© 2016 Cengage Learning: All Rights
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Multiple Baseline Across Subjects
(Figure 3.12)
Two or more subjects with the same target
behavior
Treatment is staggered over time across
subjects (baseline lengths are different)
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© 2016 Cengage Learning: All Rights
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Multiple Baseline Across Behaviors
(Figure 3.13)
Two or more behaviors of the same
subject
Treatment is staggered across the
behaviors
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© 2016 Cengage Learning: All Rights
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Multiple Baseline Across Settings
(Figure 3.14)
Two or more settings with the same target
behavior of the same subject
Treatment is staggered across settings
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© 2016 Cengage Learning: All Rights Reserved
Multiple baseline designs:
demonstrate a functional relationship
because treatment is replicated across two
or more baselines and
behavior changes only when treatment is
implemented
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Alternating Treatments Design
(Figure 3.15)
Compare baseline and treatment or two
(or more) treatments
Conditions are alternated rapidly (every
other day or every other session)
Functional relationship demonstrated
when the data are separated between the
two conditions
Also called multi-element design
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© 2016 Cengage Learning: All Rights
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Changing Criterion Design
(Figure 3.16)
Baseline and treatment phase
Multiple performance criteria (goals) in the
treatment phase
Functional relationship is demonstrated
when the behavior matches the
performance criteria
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© 2016 Cengage Learning: All Rights
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Chapter 6
Punishment
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Punishment
Is a basic principle of behavior
Is derived from basic and applied research
May be a component of some behavior
modification procedures
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Defining Punishment
1. The occurrence of a behavior
2. Is followed immediately by a consequence
3. The behavior is less likely to occur in the
future (decrease in the future probability of the
behavior)
Present: Behavior is followed by a
consequence
Future: Behavior is less likely to occur
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What is Positive Punishment?
1. Following the behavior
2. An aversive stimulus (punisher) is
applied or presented
3. The behavior is less likely to occur in the
future
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What is Negative Punishment?
1. Following the behavior
2. A reinforcing stimulus (reinforcer) is
withdrawn or removed
3. The behavior is less likely to occur in the
future
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What is a Punisher?
The stimulus that follows the behavior that
results in a decrease in the future
probability of the behavior
Also called an aversive stimulus
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Notes on Terminology
Punishers vs punishment
– Punisher is a thing
– Punishment is a process
Punisher is defined functionally
Punish behavior not people
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Punishers vs Reinforcers
When a punisher is delivered following a behavior, the
behavior is less likely to occur (decreases) in the future.
(positive punishment)
When a punisher is removed following a behavior, the
behavior is more likely to occur (increases) in the future.
(negative reinforcement)
When a reinforcer is delivered following a behavior, the
behavior is more likely to occur (increases) in the future.
(positive reinforcement)
When a reinforcer is removed following the behavior, the
behavior is less likely to occur (decreases) in the future.
(negative punishment)
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Reserved
Identify examples:
+ reinf, – reinf, + pun, – pun, or ext
1. Spit at umpire, get ejected from game,
less likely to spit on umpire
2. Spit at umpire, get laughs from
teammates, more likely to spit at umpire
3. Spit at umpire, get yelled at by manager,
less likely to spit at umpire
4. Spit at umpire, nothing happens, less
likely to spit at umpire
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Reserved
Identify examples:
+ reinf, – reinf, + pun, – pun, or EXT
1. – pun Spit at umpire, get ejected from game,
less likely to spit on umpire
2. + reinf Spit at umpire, get laughs from
teammates, more likely to spit at umpire
3. + pun Spit at umpire, get yelled at by manager,
less likely to spit at umpire
4. EXT Spit at umpire, nothing happens, less
likely to spit at umpire
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Unconditioned Punishers
Events that have biological importance
Punishers that require no conditioning to
be effective
Examples:
painful stimuli,
extreme levels of stimulation (heat, cold,
auditory, visual)
removal of unconditioned reinforcers
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Conditioned Punishers
A previously neutral stimulus
Is paired with an established punisher
Becomes a punisher itself
Examples of conditioned punishers **
“no”, reprimands, threats, warnings,
facial expressions of disapproval
** Determined by their effect on the behavior
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Factors Influencing Punishment
Immediacy
Contingency
Motivating operations
EO – antecedent that makes a stimulus more potent as a
punisher
AO – antecedent that makes a stimulus less potent as a
punisher
Intensity
Individual differences
Concurrent schedule of reinforcement or punishment
© 2016 Cengage Learning: All Rights
Reserved
Potential Problems with
Punishment
Emotional reactions to punishment
Negative reinforcement for the use of
punishment
Punishment and modeling
Ethical issues
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