I have upload the study guide! Read it first ,make sure you can do this exam and get a very good grade.You may only access this exam once. You have 60 minutes to complete the exam. The exam consists of only objective questions. There are no essay questions. 68 multiple choiceOne question per page will be displayed. Please read each question and the possible answers very carefully. Often people read too quickly and they miss a critical detail. Pick the best or most correct answer.When you have completed the exam,you can hit the submit button when you are done.Study Guide – Biology 9 Final
Lecture General Topic
No.
1
Introduction
Concepts you need to know
 What is ecology? Know definition.
 What is homeostasis? Know definition
and examples.
 What is a sustainable society?
 What factors affect sustainability?
 Describe and identify examples of
renewable, perpetual and nonrenewable
resources.
 Definition of Tragedy of the Commons
and examples of this concept
 Impact of Industrial and agricultural
revolutions on environment and
populations
 Explain the steps of Scientific Method
2
Chemistry, Energy, Matter
 Know definition of Nature’s building
blocks (atoms, elements, molecules and
compounds)
 Explain pH scale and examples of acid,
bases and pH of water.
 Describe the main elements that comprise
organic molecules and examples of
organic molecules.
 Explain properties of water
 Explain the Law of Conservation of
Matter and examples.
 Describe the two laws of
thermodynamics and provide examples.
 Identify examples and explain the
difference between high quality energy
and low quality energy. Be able to
identify examples of each.
3
Evolution, speciation
 Define the characteristics of living things
 Explain the elements of Darwinian theory
and evidence supporting evolution.
 Explain extinction rates and major
extinction events
 Explain continental drift and evidence
supporting continental drift.
1
4
Ecosystems
 What is ecology
 Explain food webs and the major players
that make up food webs
 Know which biomes have the highest and
lowest net primary productivity and
diversity
 Know and Explain each step of all the
biogeochemical cycles (water, nitrogen,
carbon, phosphorous)
 Explain 1) how/what human activities
impact each biogeochemical cycle, 2)
what compounds are generated from
these activities and 3) how they affect
terrestrial/aquatic ecosystems.
 Relate how the biogeochemical cycles is
impacted by smog, acid rain, algal
blooms (eutrophication) and global
warming.

5
Climate and Biomes
 What causes seasonal variation in the No.
and So. Pole?
 Define convection cells and describe how
it affects climate at different latitudes
 What are upwellings? How do
upwellings affect the food chain?
 Describe the El Nino effect and its
impacts on the environment and wildlife
 Define and describe the rainshadow
effect. What are some real-life
examples?
 Identify and describe the major biomes
and the plants and animals that are
characteristic of each biome.
6
Population Ecology
 Describe the difference between
specialist and generalists
 Describe the concept of ecological niches
and provide examples
 Describe examples of displacement by
non-native species
 Compare and contrast the difference
between an indicator species, keystone
species and foundation species and
examples of each
 Describe the difference between
parasitism, predation, commensalism and
2





mutualism and examples of each
What is carrying capacity and and
describe the different models of
population growth
Identify the factors that can affect
carrying capacity
Describe the difference between r and K
strategies and examples of each.
Describe the factors that affect human
population growth, doubling time, birth
rates and death rates.
Explain the population age structure
pyramids and examples of countries that
display each type of pyramid
7
Biodiversity
 Name the factors that define biodiversity
hot spots and examples of US hotspots
 Describe how human activities impact
biodiversity
 Know the difference between the
ecosystem approach and species
approach
 Explain tragedy of the commons as it
relates to public lands
 Explain the impact of grazing on
rangelands be able to name the different
impacts and their consequences.
 Explain issues regarding the management
of rangelands
 Identify the ecological impacts of
deforestation
 Name the different “values” of
preserving species from the article you
read.
 Explain U.S and international laws that
protect species and other strategies
designed to protect biodiversity.
8
Food, soils and pests
 Know the difference and definition for
the following forms of agriculture:
industrial, plantation, traditional
 Explain the pros and cons of the “green
revolutions” and what technological
advances each revolution provided.
 Identify which global problems are
related to food supply
3
 Describe the causes and impact of soil
erosion
 Describe causes and impact of
desertification
 Describe the methods of genetic
engineering
 Identify and describe the pros and cons of
genetic engineering
 Identify and describe pros and cons of
pesticides
 Identify and describe the alternatives to
pesticides
9
Water and water
pollution
 Identify the properties of water
 Identify sources of world’s water supply
and which industries use the most water
 Define groundwater and describe humans
can impact groundwater.
 Define surface water and describe how
humans can impact surface water
 Identify and describe pros and cons of
dams
 Define and describe groundwater
overdraft
 Identify the sources of water that supply
Los Angeles
 Describe history of mono lake and
explain the controversy over mono lake
 Describe environmental impacts of water
projects on salmon
 Explain how desalination works and its
pros and cons
 Define water reclamation and describe
pros and cons.
 Identify the ways to conserve water in
agricultural, industrial and residential
settings
10
Water Pollution
 Define the major categories of water
pollution and examples of each
 Explain the difference between point and
non-point sources and identify examples
of each
 Define natural and cultural
eutrophication. Know examples of
cultural eutrophication
4
 Define biomagnification and describe
examples of each discussed in class.
 Identify and explain the major features of
the clean water act
 Identify and explain the major steps of
sewage treatment
 Describe the formation and impacts of
acid mine drainage (AMD),
 Which types of mining create AMD?
11
Air pollution
 Compare the difference between
stratospheric (good) ozone and ground
(bad) ozone.
 Identify the major air pollutants and
examples of each
 Identify which pollutants are primary and
which pollutants are secondary
 Explain the difference between
photochemical and industrial smog and
the chemicals that are generated from
each
 Identify and describe examples of cities
that have photochemical smog and which
have industrial smog
 Identify and describe the factors that
increase and decrease smog levels
 Identify and describe the causes acid rain,
environmental impact, what chemicals
are involved and major contributors to
acid rain
 Explain how air pollution impacts
biogeochemical cycles and which
chemicals are involved
 Describe the clean air act and identify its
major features.
 What is command and control
regulation?
 Explain how cap and trade (emissions
trading) works.
12
Energy
 Describe benefits of energy conservation
 Identify the difference between
renewable, perpetual and nonrenewable
energy and examples of each
 Identify the country consumes the most
energy and which uses the least amount
5


















13
Climate change and
ozone
of renewable energy
which form of energy does the U.S. use
the most?
Which form of non-renewable energy has
the highest CO2 emission? Lowest?
Explain the benefits of reducing fossil
fuel use
Identify and explain the major
characteristics of oil, natural gas and coal
identify and explain the basic nuclear
reaction
identify and explain the difference
between passive, active and solar cell
forms of solar energy
Explain pros and cons of fossil fuel use
(for gasoline/oil, coal and natural gas)
Identify and explain pros and cons of
nuclear power
Which forms of renewable energy has
zero CO2 emissions? Which forms
potentially emit CO2 through the use of
other forms of energy?
Explain 3 forms of solar energy
Identify and explain pros and cons of
solar energy
Identify and explain pros and cons of
wind power
Identify and explain pros and cons of
hydropower
Identify and explain the pros and cons of
hydrogen fuel
Identify and explain strategies to
conserve energy
identify and explain major ways we can
create a more sustainable energy system
know strategies that individuals can
conserve energy
Identify and explain the pros and cons of
the various car types (e.g. gas, electric,
hybrid, natural gas, hydrogen, biodiesel
etc).
 Explain greenhouse effect
 Explain how the greenhouse effect works
and how it maintains our temperature on
earth
6
 What are the major greenhouse gases.
Identify and explain their sources and
what human activities generate each of
these chemicals
 Explain the general temperature patterns
over the course of earths history
 How does CO2 correlate with earths
surface temperatures?
 Explain the curves for CO2 and methane
concentrations over the last 150 years
 Describe the conclusions of the major
scientific reports on climate change
 What evidence supports the view that the
earth’s climate is changing
 Identify and explain potential
environmental impacts of climate change
 Which countries are the biggest CO2
emitters
 Explain how climate change will impact
vulnerable species such as polar bears,
Pikas and corals
 Identify and describe the arguments of
proponents of the view that human
activity is changing the climate. What
evidence do they rely on?
 Identify and describe the arguments of
the opposing point of view that global
warming is not caused by human
activities, what evidence do they rely on?
 Describe the recent legal developments
regarding CO2 emissions and climate
change.
 Describe Kyoto protocol and how it
works
 Which countries have not signed on to
the Kyoto protocol?
 What two methods does the Kyoto
Protocal attempt to regulate CO2
emissions?
 What ways can we reduce greenhouse
gas emissions?
 What is stratospheric ozone? How does
it benefit life on earth? How did it
originally form?
 How does stratospheric ozone differ from
tropospheric (ground level) ozone?
7
 What chemicals cause ozone loss?
 What are the health and environmental
effects of ozone loss?
 Explain the elements of the Montreal
protocol
 Has the Montreal protocol been
successful? Why?
 Review strategies to reduce CO2
emissions
 Which gases are both an ozone depleting
substance and a greenhouse gas?
 Know how ozone depletion and
greenhouse effect are different.
14
Waste management
14
Show and tell lecture
 Describe the 4 Rs of waste
management. Be able to give examples
of each one.
 Define the law of conservation of matter
relates to waste management
 Describe what the goals of Los Angeles
waste management are for the year 2020
and how the city tries to achieve this
goal.
 Describe the pros of recycling and how it
is advantageous from an environmental
point of view.
 Describe the pros and cons of
incineration
 describe the pros and cons of sanitary
landfills
 be able to give examples of how you can
reduce waste in your own home
 be able to give examples of how you can
reuse products in your own home.
 Review study guide on movie “Waste
not, Want not” and review your notes
from “The Story of Stuff.”
 Review article on disappearance of honey
bees (from food and pests lecture).
 Review notes from lecture
 How do native bees differ from European
Honey bees?
 What are the major theories about why
the European honey bees are
disappearing?
8
Study tips:
 The units highlighted above in bold will comprise about 55-60\% of the final.
These are the topics that were not covered in the previous midterms. The
remainder of the final will be cumulative material. Keep in mind that some
questions are overlap questions (old concepts/themes repeated in later lectures).
New material will be the same level of detail as a regular exam. Questions on old
material will be more general
 Use the powerpoint presentations and/or Table of Contents at the beginning of
each unit’s lecture notes as a guide and framework for your outline. Use the
headings of each slide to organize concepts and use them as a roadmap.
 If there is a term or concept on the slide that is not defined (slides are only a
roadmap), go to your notes or the book for clarification. Make flash cards.
 Review old exams and quizzes – some of these concepts may be repeated on the
final
 Review and answer objective questions from each module/unit. Review “test
your knowledge” quizzes from each unit.
 Review old homework and study guides. These assignments were designed for
you to review and understand major themes and concepts.
 Review videos. Some questions will contain concepts discussed in the videos.
 Form study groups for final.
9

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