Apply It!Take one element of the theories or ideas presented this week and apply it to a real person – for example, someone from current events, (no politics), business, sports, the entertainment field. Define the terms you’re using, and apply them to an aspect of this person’s life (a specific action, behavior, or decision, for example). How can we understand this person more fully by using this concept to understand him/her?Please keep this discussion professional remembering that our goal is understanding, never condemning or ridiculing.This is a Personality of Psychology paper, used concepts attached in study notes but do not use them in the paper. 500 words minimum, APA format only!!!! There person choosen must be approved by me FIRST before the paper is written thank you!WEEK 6
Study Notes
CHAPTER 7: COGNITIVE ASPECTS
This straightforward chapter applies basic cognitive notions to personality, arid
thus includes field theory, field dependence, schemas, constructs, scripts, and
attributions. The main classic theorist is George Kelly, and the modern counterparts are
attributional models of helplessness (e.g., Seligman). Bandura’s social-cognitive
learning theory is presented iii detail as a sophisticated modern theory that integrates
many key cognitive and behavioral notions. Significant attention is given to ,Julian
Rotter’s notions of locus of control and social learning, and self-regulation processes
are discussed. The chapter ends with a brief overview of modern conceptualizations of
human information processing and the similarities and differences between humans and
computers in terms of thought processing and “personality.” A though some texts
inctude some of these matters in a behaviorist/learning chapter, we find that many
students understand this material better after they understand the work of Pavlov,
Skinner, and Dollard and Mi[ler.
Possible Lecture Outline
I. Perception and cognition as the core of personality
A. Roots in Gestalt psychology
1 We seek meaning in our environments
2. We organize sensations into meaningful perceptions
3. Complex stimuli are not reducible to the sum of their parts
B. Lewin’s field theory
1. Life space
2. Focus on issues related to separateness of different areas
3. Contemporaneous causation
4 Field dependent people are easily influenced by the context or “field”
they are functioning in
a. rod-and-frame task dependence as a personality variable
First explored as a personality variable by Witkin and Asch Some of the
demonstrated associations with field dependence are
a. children’s play preferences
b. socialization patterns
c. career choices
d. preferred interpersonal distance during conversation
e. level of eye contact
3. Small, consistent gender differences (women more field dependent)
4. Field dependence also shown to vary cross-culturally
C. Field dependence as a personality variable
1. First explored as a personality variable with Witkin and Asch
2. Some of the demonstrated associations with field dependence are
a. childrens play preferences
b. socialization patterns
c. career choices
d. preferred interpersonal distance during conversation
e. level of eye contact
3. Small, consistent gender differences (women more field dependent)
4. Field dependence also shown to vary cross-culturally
D. Other, similar cognitive style variables are related to personality
1. Cognitive complexity is defined as the extent to which a person
comprehends, utilizes and is comfortable with separate elements into
which an entity or event is analyzed, and the extent to which the person
can integrate these elements by drawing relationships among them
H. Schema theory
1. Piaget proposed that children understand the world through cognitive
structures called “schemas” which build upon one another as the child
develops (adults have schemas, too)
2. Schemas play an important role in determining how we think and act
a. script” is a schema for a familiar ritual
F. Categorization: organizing our experiences by grouping into categories
1. Ability to screen out unimportant/irrelevant stimuli
2. Ability to glean rich information from fleeting facial expressions
3. The step from useful category to dangerous stereotype is small
a. confirmation bias is seen in the use of stereotypes
C. Control of attention is an important factor which allows us to function
efficiently
1. We notice salient environmental features and combine these with our
current goals to decide where to direct our attention
2. individual differences in attention: to what degree is attention under
conscious control?
3. People (especially school-aged children) who have atypical attentional
processes are often diagnosed as having ADHD—attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder
II. Humans as scientists
A. Kelly’s Personal Construct Theory posits that people are like scientists,
actively trying to discover the world around them (a constructivist view)
B. Behavior s guided by interpretations of events and expectations of future
events
C. Kelly believed each person’s system of constructs is different and thus each
person his a unique personality “theory”
1. Role Construct Repertory Test (Rep Test) assesses an individual’s
personal construct system
Ill. Social intelligence: people differ in interpersonal skills, just like they differ on all sorts
of other dimensions
A. There is cluster of abilities that is important for successfully relating to others
B. A similar idea is proposed by Gardner’s “multiple intelligences” theory
IV. Explanatory style as a personality variable
A. Explanatory style: characteristic way of interpreting life-events (e.g. optimism
vs. pessimism)
‘I. An optimistic explanatory style is generally more adaptive, although
excessive or inappropriate optimism isn’t healthy
2. People with an optimistic explanatory style usual y deal with stress
more successfully (often take an information-seeking and situation/selfmonitoring approach)
B. The cognitive consequence is that those who cope by blunting or repressing
information (typical of the pessimistic explanatory style) will later have less
cognitive information available to them
V Attributional model of learned helplessness
A. Seligman describes learned helplessness as a situation in which one learns
that negative events can’t be avoided
belief learned through repeated, uncontrollable exposure to negative
events 2. belief persists even when negative event is later avoidable
VI. Rotter’s social learning and locus of control approaches
A. Behavior depends upon outcome expectancy and reinforcement value
B. Behavior potential: likelihood that a behavior will be performed in a particular
situation
1, Generalized expectancies carry more weight in novel situations
2. Specific expectancies are used in familiar situations
C. Rotters six psychological needs which stem from biological needs (these are
satisfied by secondary reinforcers)
1. Recognition-status
2. Dominance
3. Independence
4. Protection-dependency
5. Love and affection
6. Physical comfort
D. “Psychological situation” represents an individual’s unique set of potential
behaviors, outcome expectancies, and reinforcement potentiat
H. Locus of control (internal vs. external): beliefs about one’s ability to affect
outcomes
1. More recently, reconceptualized as three semi-orthogonal dimensions
a. luck
b. powerful others
c. internality
VII. Bandura’s social-cognitive learning theory
A. Self-system: set of cognitive processes a person uses to perceive, evaluate,
and regulate his/her own behavior so it’s functionally efficient and appropriate
B. Observational learning (also called vicarious learning or modeling): learning a
behavior by watching another rather than performing it oneself (illustrated with
Bobo [loll studies)
C. May or may not perform learned behavior
1. Outcome expectancies important in determining performance of
learned behavior
2. Complexity of the behavior, attributes of the model, and attributes of the
observer also play a role in determining whether or not a learned
behavior is performed
D. Observational learning explains how we can learn to inhibit unacceptable
behavior without first performing it
E. Observational learning requires four components
1. Attention
2. Retention
3. Motor reproduction
4. Motivation
F. Self-efficacy: expectancy about one’s own ability to be successful (determines
whether we try to act at all, how long we persist in difficult times, and how
successes and failures affect future behavior; based on four kinds of
information
1. Personal performance experiences
2. Vicarious experiences
3. Verbal persuasion
4. Emotional reactions
G. Self regulation: the process by which people can control their own
achievements and act ions
1. self-efficacy is a component of this process
2. this construct focuses on internal control (from within the individual) of
behaviors
VIII. Humans as computers: artificial intelligence
A. Is simulating cognitive tasks the same thing as creating a “personality”” No.
1. Personality-like characteristics can be programmed
2. We may tend to make “personality” attributions even when no
“personality” exists
a. The Turing test
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc.

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